Every structure needs a good base. The human body is no different. I’m sure you wouldn’t be surprised to hear that a bridge needs new supports or has some type of structural weakness. Well the same things can happen with your body. When maximal performance is desired, we as performance trainers need to consider how structurally sound you are as an athlete. That’s where a lot of these lower body dysfunctions can rear their ugly heads. Pay close attention to the following list and see if you or your athlete happen to fall victim to some of these common dysfunctions. Keep in mind, some of these are hereditary and some are acquired:
Excessive Internal Rotation and Adduction of the Hip:
The Who: We see this a lot in the female population and a lot more in athletes that are long legged. Sometimes the long slender legs tend to create more play in the hip socket and underdeveloped legs can fall victim to this dysfunction.
The Why: Based on recent research, there are multiple factors contributing to this “excessive” internal rotation and adduction. Some of this research suggests weakness, lack of firing, and alterations in motor control of the gluteal muscles. Some studies related to knee valgus also imply over-activity of hip adductors. As one would suspect, pain and dysfunction will lead to changes in muscle activity, motor control, joint motion and flexibility. But in the case of knee dysfunction, a strong correlation was found between knee valgus during squatting and landing tasks, and future ACL injuries in female athletes.
The Approach: An integrated training model that includes intervention to correct compensation patterns, as well as, stability, power and agility training to compliment traditional strength exercises results in better performance than traditional isolated strength training. Not all athletes are big fans of foam rolling, stretching, mobilizing, activating, core conditioning, and working on stabilization, but the alternative could be injury and decreased performance, and I don’t know a single athlete who is a fan of performing poorly or being side-lined by injury.
Athletes don’t have to spend an entire session doing corrective exercise if they use corrective exercise as their warm-up before every training session. What we do in ESP is bundle athlete’s flexibility, core and traditional warm-up time, and replace it with a circuit of exercises (10 – 20 minutes) that are aimed at optimizing the way they move. Look at it simply as this: Athletes have 2 choices before they start training – improve the quality of human movement and optimize mechanics, or spend 10 minutes on a treadmill reinforcing their compensation patterns.
Physical Applications (forgive the scientific terms)
This is a movement in which the foot collapses inwards, and the feet flatten out to some degree.
The Who: If we were to guess the amount of athletes we work with that have feet that pronate in some way shape or form, I would say it is upwards of 70%. In fact it is so prevalent that we have several exercises in our exercise database that we prescribe if we notice this dysfunction in an athlete.
The Why: By standing with your feet in a collapsed position, or moving and allowing your feet to collapse, you are putting the rest of the body in a weaker and more exposed posture. By having an arch that collapses in, it can increase the chance of injury while also causing a loss in power, and because most sports are played while on our feet it becomes a high priority in correcting.
An everted (pronated) foot exposes the body to such problems as, but not limited to:
For an everted foot, strengthening & rolling out the arches, finding proper shoe inserts (for both your activities of daily living and your athletic movements) and even working on how to transfer weight properly will help create a more appropriate movement pattern of the ankle.
We will also use closed kinetic chain exercises (where the foot is in contact with the ground) and open kinetic chain exercises (where the foot is not in contact with the ground) to correct the function of the lower body.
Poor Ankle Mobility
The Who: This one is sort of all across the board so we will just go through a couple exercises to see if you might have stiff ankles. One common theme we see is that athletes with stiff ankles tend to have knee issues.
There are a couple of ways to find out if you have stiff ankles:
The Why: Poor dorsiflexion can be attributed to a number of factors. These include:
Self myofascial release on the foam roller. Grab a foam roller and sit on the ground. Place one leg on the roller, just above the ankle, and the rest the base of the heel of your free leg on your toes. Roll up and down the entire length of your calf and Achilles’ tendon for 1 minute. If you hit a tender spot (you’ll know if you do), pause and focus on this area for 10-20 seconds. The great thing about this exercise is that you can turn your body to the side and hit both the medial and lateral aspect of your calf, and you can add in active movements during the rolling such as actively dorsiflexing the foot or performing ankle circles.
Squat with elevated toes. This is a simple and quick drill that is easy to perform. Simply place your toes on a slight incline (like two 5lb plates) and move into dorsiflexion by bending your knees. Increase the incline as you progress.
Knee to wall drill. We explained this above when we tried to have you see if you had tight ankles. As the name suggests, have your foot 3-5 inches away from a wall. Lean forward with your heel staying in contact with the floor. If you can touch your knee to the wall, you are doing pretty good. If you can’t keep your heel on the ground or touch the wall, then you may need to complete this drill on a daily basis to create some more flexibility.
If you ever happened to be a fly on the wall during one of our training sessions, you would constantly hear us harp on the athletes for allowing their knees to collapse or for their hip moving out of alignment with their knee and ankle thus allowing their glute muscles to deactivate and more pressure being placed on their knees. We do this even in the slightest of movements because if we don’t instruct proper movement here, how can we assume they know how to correctly get in and out of a chair? This is something they do hundreds of times in a day. The main focus in all of our sessions is to think of the lower body as a chain and if somewhere within that chain a “kink” or movement imbalance appears it needs to be corrected. This way, the body can perform the proficient movement even prior to having an external load placed on it. In developing athletes the first step always should be making them into an efficient mover over having them lift heavy weight with inefficient movement patterns.